NN 需要替换成相应的版本, PREFIX 表示安装目录,比如/usr/apache.如果不指定PREFIX,则默认安装到/usr/local/apache2目录!
The following requirements exist for building Apache httpd:
- APR and APR-Util
- Make sure you have APR and APR-Util already installed on your system. If you don't, or prefer to not use the system-provided versions, download the latest versions of both APR and APR-Util from Apache APR, unpack them into
./srclib/apr-util(be sure the directory names do not have version numbers; for example, the APR distribution must be under ./srclib/apr/) and use
--with-included-aproption. On some platforms, you may have to install the corresponding
-devpackages to allow httpd to build against your installed copy of APR and APR-Util.
- Perl-Compatible Regular Expressions Library (PCRE)
- This library is required but not longer bundled with httpd. Download the source code from http://www.pcre.org, or install a Port or Package. If your build system can't find the pcre-config script installed by the PCRE build, point to it using the
--with-pcreparameter. On some platforms, you may have to install the corresponding
-devpackage to allow httpd to build against your installed copy of PCRE.
- Disk Space
- Make sure you have at least 50 MB of temporary free disk space available. After installation the server occupies approximately 10 MB of disk space. The actual disk space requirements will vary considerably based on your chosen configuration options, any third-party modules, and, of course, the size of the web site or sites that you have on the server.
- ANSI-C Compiler and Build System
- Make sure you have an ANSI-C compiler installed. The GNU C compiler (GCC) from the Free Software Foundation (FSF) is recommended. If you don't have GCC then at least make sure your vendor's compiler is ANSI compliant. In addition, your
PATHmust contain basic build tools such as
- Accurate time keeping
- Elements of the HTTP protocol are expressed as the time of day. So, it's time to investigate setting some time synchronization facility on your system. Usually the
xntpdprograms are used for this purpose which are based on the Network Time Protocol (NTP). See the NTP homepage for more details about NTP software and public time servers.
- Perl 5 [OPTIONAL]
- For some of the support scripts like
dbmmanage(which are written in Perl) the Perl 5 interpreter is required (versions 5.003 or newer are sufficient). If you have multiple Perl interpreters (for example, a systemwide install of Perl 4, and your own install of Perl 5), you are advised to use the
--with-perloption (see below) to make sure the correct one is used by
configure. If no Perl 5 interpreter is found by the
configurescript, you will not be able to use the affected support scripts. Of course, you will still be able to build and use Apache httpd.
The Apache HTTP Server can be downloaded from the Apache HTTP Server download site, which lists several mirrors. Most users of Apache on unix-like systems will be better off downloading and compiling a source version. The build process (described below) is easy, and it allows you to customize your server to suit your needs. In addition, binary releases are often not up to date with the latest source releases. If you do download a binary, follow the instructions in the
INSTALL.bindist file inside the distribution.
After downloading, it is important to verify that you have a complete and unmodified version of the Apache HTTP Server. This can be accomplished by testing the downloaded tarball against the PGP signature. Details on how to do this are available on thedownload page and an extended example is available describing the use of PGP.
Extracting the source from the Apache HTTP Server tarball is a simple matter of uncompressing, and then untarring:
$ gzip -d httpd-NN.tar.gz
$ tar xvf httpd-NN.tar
This will create a new directory under the current directory containing the source code for the distribution. You should
cd into that directory before proceeding with compiling the server.
Configuring the source tree
The next step is to configure the Apache source tree for your particular platform and personal requirements. This is done using the script
configure included in the root directory of the distribution. (Developers downloading an unreleased version of the Apache source tree will need to have
libtool installed and will need to run
buildconf before proceeding with the next steps. This is not necessary for official releases.)
To configure the source tree using all the default options, simply type
./configure. To change the default options,
configure accepts a variety of variables and command line options.
The most important option is the location
--prefix where Apache is to be installed later, because Apache has to be configured for this location to work correctly. More fine-tuned control of the location of files is possible with additional configure options.
Also at this point, you can specify which features you want included in Apache by enabling and disabling modules. Apache comes with a wide range of modules included by default. They will be compiled as shared objects (DSOs) which can be loaded or unloaded at runtime. You can also choose to compile modules statically by using the option
Additional modules are enabled using the
--enable-module option, where module is the name of the module with the
mod_ string removed and with any underscore converted to a dash. Similarly, you can disable modules with the
--disable-moduleoption. Be careful when using these options, since
configure cannot warn you if the module you specify does not exist; it will simply ignore the option.
In addition, it is sometimes necessary to provide the
configure script with extra information about the location of your compiler, libraries, or header files. This is done by passing either environment variables or command line options to
configure. For more information, see the
configure manual page. Or invoke
configure using the
For a short impression of what possibilities you have, here is a typical example which compiles Apache for the installation tree
/sw/pkg/apache with a particular compiler and flags plus the two additional modules
$ CC="pgcc" CFLAGS="-O2" \
./configure --prefix=/sw/pkg/apache \
configure is run it will take several minutes to test for the availability of features on your system and build Makefiles which will later be used to compile the server.
Details on all the different
configure options are available on the
configure manual page.
Now you can build the various parts which form the Apache package by simply running the command:
Please be patient here, since a base configuration takes several minutes to compile and the time will vary widely depending on your hardware and the number of modules that you have enabled.
Now it's time to install the package under the configured installation PREFIX (see
--prefix option above) by running:
$ make install
This step will typically require root privileges, since PREFIX is usually a directory with restricted write permissions.
If you are upgrading, the installation will not overwrite your configuration files or documents.
Next, you can customize your Apache HTTP server by editing the configuration files under
$ vi PREFIX/conf/httpd.conf
Have a look at the Apache manual under
PREFIX/docs/manual/ or consult http://httpd.apache.org/docs/2.4/ for the most recent version of this manual and a complete reference of available configuration directives.
Now you can start your Apache HTTP server by immediately running:
$ PREFIX/bin/apachectl -k start
You should then be able to request your first document via the URL
http://localhost/. The web page you see is located under the
DocumentRoot, which will usually be
PREFIX/htdocs/. Then stop the server again by running:
$ PREFIX/bin/apachectl -k stop
The first step in upgrading is to read the release announcement and the file
CHANGES in the source distribution to find any changes that may affect your site. When changing between major releases (for example, from 2.0 to 2.2 or from 2.2 to 2.4), there will likely be major differences in the compile-time and run-time configuration that will require manual adjustments. All modules will also need to be upgraded to accommodate changes in the module API.
Upgrading from one minor version to the next (for example, from 2.2.55 to 2.2.57) is easier. The
make install process will not overwrite any of your existing documents, log files, or configuration files. In addition, the developers make every effort to avoid incompatible changes in the
configure options, run-time configuration, or the module API between minor versions. In most cases you should be able to use an identical
configure command line, an identical configuration file, and all of your modules should continue to work.
To upgrade across minor versions, start by finding the file
config.nice in the
build directory of your installed server or at the root of the source tree for your old install. This will contain the exact
configure command line that you used to configure the source tree. Then to upgrade from one version to the next, you need only copy the
config.nice file to the source tree of the new version, edit it to make any desired changes, and then run:
$ make install
$ PREFIX/bin/apachectl -k graceful-stop
$ PREFIX/bin/apachectl -k start
You can pass additional arguments to
config.nice, which will be appended to your original
$ ./config.nice --prefix=/home/test/apache --with-port=90
A large number of third parties provide their own packaged distributions of the Apache HTTP Server for installation on particular platforms. This includes the various Linux distributions, various third-party Windows packages, Mac OS X, Solaris, and many more.
Our software license not only permits, but encourages, this kind of redistribution. However, it does result in a situation where the configuration layout and defaults on your installation of the server may differ from what is stated in the documentation. While unfortunate, this situation is not likely to change any time soon.
A description of these third-party distrubutions is maintained in the HTTP Server wiki, and should reflect the current state of these third-party distributions. However, you will need to familiarize yourself with your particular platform's package management and installation procedures.